The Role of Epistemological Foundations
in Discovering Psychological Realities

Mohammad Reza Ahmadi / Assistant professor of IKI            m.r.Ahmadi313@Gmail.com

Received: 2016-05-04 - Accepted: 2016-10-03



The present paper seeks to identify the role of epistemological foundations in psychology. Using a descriptive-analytical method, relying on Islamic sources and referring to psychology sources, it reviews two foundations: "the possibility of cognition" and "diversity of the ways of cognition", and then examines their role in discovering psychological realities.The research findings show that establishing the foundation of "possibility of cognition" shows that it is possible to have absolute, unchangeable and beyond time- place kinds of cognition about human acts under certain conditions. This helps, psychology to get out of its insecure and unstable condition and achieves principles which have high confidence. Similarly, accepting this foundation strengthens the critical attitude about the human sciences and urges scientists to make greater efforts to acquire professional kinds of knowledge.  According to the "diversity of ways of cognition", man’s widespread and comprehensive cognition and his characteristics will be possible by using all the available methods and it will be possible to have true and comprehensive knowledge of man by relying on one single method. With the diversity of methods, it is possible to produce religious science, including Islamic psychology, especially on topics or concepts referred to religious texts.

Keywords: epistemological foundations, research methods, ways of recognizing the possibility of cognition.

The Possibility, Validity and Usefulness of Religious Psychological Studies

Mahmoud Nozari / Assistant professor of Hawzah and Daneshgah research center

Received: 2016-04-29 - Accepted: 2016-08-06                                         mnowzari@rihu.ac.ir



Religious psychological studies explore religious cognition, religious feeling and behavior from the view of psychological theories, and present a new psychological understanding of them. Since the development of these studies in the West, there have been theoretical disputes about the possibility, validity and usefulness of psychological understanding of  religion especially among Christian scholars.  These studies have expanded in Iran, but no theoretical discussions have developed so far. The aim of the present research is to give an account of the views of the proponents and opponents about these studies in the West, present the strategies for promoting the quality of research, develop theoretical discussions, and contribute to the Islamization of science in Iran. The research method is descriptive-analytical. The research findings indicate that the proofs of the opponents and proponents of psychological studies of religious are concerned with the determinism or non-determinism, reductionism or non-reductionism, conflict or non-conflict inherent in the scientific and religious explanations, practical usefulness or non-usefulness, the results of psychological religious and authority or non-authority of the psychological understanding of religious concepts and statements.

Key words: psychological religious studies, psychology of religion, possibility, reliability and usefulness of psychology of religion, religious cognition, religious behavior.

Narrative Research as a Qualitative Research Method

Ehsan Aghababaei /assistant professor at department of social sciences, Isfahan University


Reza Hemmati / assistant professor at department of social sciences, University of Isfahan

Received: 2016-07-03 - Accepted: 2016-10-09                                                                              



Narrative research, being one of the novel approaches here under qualitative research has been introduced as an independent and unique approach in social sciences since1990s.  The present study which represents a kind of method, investigates certain aspects of the experienced and narrated human life and seeks to gain a deeper understanding of these experiences which are gained from dialogues and participation in the life of participants within a social and cultural context. Narrative research emphasizes on the way people give meaning to their experiences through the stories which they narrate. This paper aims to feature a brief introduction of narrative research as a specific type of the qualitative research method, through which one can describe some of the social relations in activists' life. To achieve this goal, first, the conceptual context of narrative and its applications, and then the basic assumptions of the study, data collection methods, types of data analysis and validation criteria are examined. Finally this approach is criticized and examined.

Key words: narrative, narrative research, storytelling, narrated life.

Priorities and Obstacles to Theorization at Universities;
Investigating the Viewpoints of the Faculty Members of Islamic Azad
University, Islamshahr Branch

Sefallah Fazlollahi Ghomeshi / assistant professor of curriculum development, department of educational sciences, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran.         fazlollahigh @ Qom- iau.ac.ir
Heidarali Jahanbakhshi / department of Islamic studies, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, Iran            jahanbakhshi46@gmail.com
Received: 2016-06-14 - Accepted: 2016-09-26

The aim of this study is to identify the obstacles to theorization, criticism and academic debate at universities and their prioritization from the view point of the faculty members of Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr branch.  The population sample of this survey which uses a descriptive method, consists of all the faculty members of Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, 174 of whom were randomly chosen by using stratified sampling. The required data were collected from a researcher-developed questionnaire with a reliability of 0.89 based on the five-level Likert rating scale. In addition to the descriptive statistics, group inferential statistics were also used for analyzing the data. The results show that unconventionality of scientific debates in academia, unnecessary bureaucracy in the approval of the proposed theories, low value of creative and critical thinking in academic culture , lack of  support for the proposed theories, feeling lack of proper culture of acceptance, disrespect to experts' opinions, not benefitting from professionals’ expertise for solving organizational problems, emphasis on education rather than on research, lack of understanding the purposes and structure of theorization and lack of facilities are respectively the most important obstacles. Lack of self-confidence in working on scientific theories and a vague sense of politicization in testing the theories are, respectively, among the least serious obstacles.  The results show that theorization at universities requires the development of cultural and managerial infrastructure more than anything else.
Key words: scientific criticism and debate, obstacles to theorization, faculty members, prioritization.

The Principles of Scholarship;
a Comparison between the Traditional Approach and Modern Approach

Mohmmad Fooladi / Assistant professor of IKI                                                              fooladi@iki.ac.ir

Soltanmorad Mahaki / PhD Student of history and civilization of Islamic nations, Qom Islamic Azad University                                                                                         mahaki2158@gmail.com

Received: 2016-05-04 - Accepted: 2016-10-16



Using an analytical and theoretical approach, the present paper tries to compare the traditional approach and modern approach to the method of scholarship and highlight their strengths and weaknesses. The question in this research is: What are the principles and methods of scholarship of the traditional approach and modern approach? The research findings indicate that the principles of the scholarship in the traditional approach are mainly based on sincerity in acquiring knowledge, and more efforts are devoted by students and teachers. Furthermore, due to the lack of realia and teaching aids they are rarely used due to their lack and the dominant teaching method is memorization, repetition and lecturing. In modern approach, however, the teacher and student are semi-active and modern teaching-learning process makes use of educational technology and tools on a large scale. The best method of scholarship and the best research method emphasize on the strengths of each of these methods and combines their educational merits, due to the fact that the traditional method as well as modern method of scholarship have some deficiencies.

Keywords: scholarship, principles, method, traditional, modern, knowledge, strengths, weaknesses.

The Factors Affecting the Selection of a Subject Matter for the Theses of Postgraduate Students in Firdausi University Mashhad

Zohreh Negahban / MA of educational research ,Firdausi University of Mashhad


Tahereh Javidi / Associate Professor of education department, Firdausi University of Mashhad

Mohammadreza Ahanchiyan / Associate Professor of education department, Firdausi University of Mashhad

Received: 2016-05-09 - Accepted: 2016-10-09



The first condition for maximizing the effectiveness of students' thesis is choosing appropriate subject matters for a research project. Using a descriptive-analytical and documentary- survey method, the present research aims at identifying the factors affecting the selection of a subject matter for writing a theses by the postgraduate students in Firdausi University.  The statistical population consists of all the postgraduate students in Firdausi University Mashhad, among whom 286 students were selected for the survey through quota sampling. A  researcher-made questionnaire which is designed according to Likert scale is used in this survey. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five professors in the field of research methods, and its reliability was established by Cronbach's alpha internal consistency (0.82). The results of  analyzing the factors show that  five factors including the atmosphere and facilities of university, students' personal relations, time and ease of having access to resources, the relations with the organizations and attachment to place are  influential in the selection of  a subject matter for writing a thesis by students.  The atmosphere and facilities of university are among the factors that have greatest impact. Furthermore, the results show that the students do not seem willing to take into consideration the problems and needs of the society when choosing the subject matter.

Keywords:  selection of a subject matter, thesis, postgraduate education, Firdausi University Mashhad.