Educational Ethnology Methodology Based on the Experiences
of the Noor School in the Village of Uriri, Kenya


Seyfullah Fazlullahi Qumshi / Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Qom, Islamic Azad University.                                                                                                                         fazlollahigh@qom-iau.ac.ir

Mahdi Yousefi / Department of Educational Sciences, Qom, Islamic Azad University, Qom.


Received: 2018/10/07 - Accepted: 2019/01/22



Ethnography is one of the qualitative researches that have gained popularity over the past years, and due to the profound and extensive information that it provides about its case study, this method has been used in various fields of human researches, such as social, religious, educational, cultural studies, cultural pathologies and etc. This impact is to the extent that, some scholars have called ethnography as an equation for a qualitative research approach. Such a qualitative research, which is based on a close relationship with the research environment, can provide a comprehensive overview of the case study, and reveal the hidden and uncovered layers. Using ethnographic methodology, researchers examined classrooms, teachers and students of one of the elementary schools in Uriri, a village in Kenya. The findings show that, elementary schools in Kenya are based on a close relationship between teacher and student, but without modern media tools. Meanwhile, the school and its governing cultures are heavily influenced by the social and cultural context of society to the extent that, the wealth, poverty, problems, delinquency, crime, willingness or unwillingness towards the school, affect the school, the culture of learning and the relationship of students with their teachers.

Keywords: ethnography, teacher, student, Noor school, Uriri village, Kenya.

The Fundamental Methodology of the Theory of Existentialist Situational Ethics, and Analysis of its Foundations from the Islamic Point of View


Amir Moazami Goodarzi / Ph.D. Student in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences


Received: 2018/12/29 - Accepted: 2019/05/19



One of the essential prerequisites for the production of Islamic humanities is the fundamental methodology of existing theories in the field of human sciences; because, according to the philosophers of the humanities, the philosophical foundations of the theorist of the humanities have a fundamental influence on the formation of his ideas, and will be the basis of his ideas. Since most of the existing theories in the humanities are formed in the context of non-Islamic foundations, it is necessary to explain the formation of these ideas and their critique from the Islamic point of view by the methodological knowledge, to provide the conditions for the production of Islamic theological sciences by rejecting false ideas and answering the questions, based on the Islamic sources. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper analyzes the fundamental methodology of the theory of existentialist situational ethics, which originates primarily from the philosophical foundations of Sartre. Then, using an analytical-critical method, it analyzes the philosophical foundations of this theory from the Islamic point of view. The findings show that, this theory is incorrect from the Islamic point of view, and by presenting the questions of this theory to Islamic thought, we will get an alternative theory in the field of ethics.

Keywords: the fundamental methodology, Jean-Paul Sartre, the theory of situational ethics, freedom and existentialism.

Challenges of the Theoretical Framework in Islamic Economics


Sajjad Seyfluo / Ph.D. in International Contracts Management, Imam Sadiq University, seiflou@isu.ac.ir

Received: 2018/12/29 - Accepted: 2019/05/19



What distinguishes scientific theory from other methods of acquiring knowledge is the application of a scientific method for acquiring knowledge. The theoretical framework is one of the most important components of a scientific research. In Islamic economics, there is almost no general accepted theoretical framework. Using the conventional economics frameworks, due to the lack of a theoretical framework in Islamic economics, is playing a game on the ground of conventional economics. While explaining the method of research in conventional sciences and expressing the position of its theoretical framework, a challenge that has hindered the transformation of the Islamic economy into a discipline and scientific paradigm has been studied in this paper. For the empirical test, two journals "Islamic Economics" and "Islamic Economic Studies" have been selected. Although the case study of the 62 articles in these two journals does not explicitly endorse our hypothesis i.e. the lack of theoretical frameworks in the research of Islamic economics, it shows the fundamental shortcomings in applying the theoretical framework in research on the Islamic economy. Less than a quarter of the articles with a theoretical framework were based on Islamic theoretical frameworks.

Keywords: research methodology, theoretical framework, Islamic economics, case study, scientific paradigm.

Differences of the Methodology of Normative and Positive Islamic Economics from Shahid Sadr's Viewpoint


Mohammad Javad Tavakoli / Assistant Professor, IKI.                                           Tavakoli@iki.ac.ir

Received: 2019/02/17 - Accepted: 2019/05/29



Muslim scholars typically distinguish between normative and positive economics. Such a distinction has been a source for discussions on the meaning of these two concepts and the method of producing and testing them. The current paper deals with the question that whether the difference in the content of normative and positive economics could differentiate their methodology? According to the hypothesis of the paper, each of normative and positive Islamic economics has their own method for building theories. Such a conjecture is mainly based on the definition of Shahid Sadr of Normative and positive Islamic economics and their relationship. The findings of the paper, which is based on an analytical approach, show that theories of normative Islamic economics are discovered by using direct Ijtihad from Islamic sources or by using "the discovery methodology". In contrast, the theories of positive Islamic economics are produces by the aid of deduction, induction and hypothetico-deduction. There is, of course, a methodological convergence between positive and normative economics. Since the findings of normative Islamic economics especially those about the ideal structure of Islamic economy are used as some assumption in positive Islamic economics, the methodology of positive Islamic economics is not totally distinct from the methodology of normative Islamic economics.

KeyWords: Islamic Economics, Normative Islamic economics, Positive Islamic Economics, Methodology.

A Review of the Methodological Theory of Popper's falsification
and its functioning in the humanities


Hamid, emami far / Ph.D. Student in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, IKI.


Received: 2018/09/13 - Accepted: 2019/01/20



The falsity from the viewpoint of its followers is not the criterion of meaning or standard of truth, rather, it is the only criterion for separating science from non-science and semiotics. Popper, in the view of falsity with the idea of approaching truth, comes with inductive belief in rationality and scientific progress, and preserves the optimism of modern philosophy for the role of science in society and human history; But he does not consider the empirical basis for scientific theories and introduces the theory as a temporary conjecture that is proposed to solve the problems of previous theories. He considers the function of experience to be in critique and revocation, and emphasizes that experience is not involved in proving or confirming a theory. He not only sees this logic in the current natural sciences, but also sees this method and logic in the theorizing in the social sciences. In this article, we examine the epistemological foundations and the results of Popper's falsification in the natural and social sciences and eventually examine them.

Keywords: Popper, Humanities, Falsifiability, Methodology, Approaching truth.

An Inquiry into the Religious Science;
 an Analysis of the Finding Approach


Mohammad Fooladi / Associate Professor, Sociology Department, IKI.                     fooladi@iki.ac.ir

Received: 2019/02/17 - Accepted: 2019/05/29



The relation between science and religion is still a widely discussed topic, and has a long history in the Islamic civilization. Many theories have been made in the field of the science of religion. One of the coherent theories in this field is the founding approach to the religious science. Analyzing, reviewing and evaluating this theory can contribute to the advancement and development of religious science. Using the critical, descriptive-analytical approach as well as content analysis, this paper reviews this theory, and shows its strengths, weaknesses and failures. The findings show that, the finding approach can be expressed in four theories, the theory of "the encyclopedic approach to religion," "the comprehensive refinement," "the maximum effect of religion on science," and "the excerpting approach of religion". It seems that each of these ideas has failures. But the vital point in the field of the religiousization of science is that, the religiousization is acquiring what has been acquired in some religious sciences, and meaningless in some others. But through reforming the religious foundations and assumptions, expanding the methods and reforming the purposes of science, one can make religious sciences; there is no need for empirical confirmation of assumptions.

Keywords: religion, religious sciences, the finding approach, the encyclopedic approach to religion, the comprehensive refinement, the excerpting approach of religion.