A Review of a Translated Text

Mansoor Nasiri*


In his important and classic article, entitled " The Inference to the Best Explanation", Gilbert Harman tries to prove that all numerical deductive inferences are ascribed to another kind of inference called" the inference to the best explanation". This article and Gilbert Herman's arguments contained in it has special significance in philosophy of science and is considered one of the important sources of this subject. The article was translated into Persian and then published. However, the translation is not only of no avail for Persian scholars but also so confusing that it hinders them from understanding the intention of the learned thinker who has written it, due to the defects and gross mistakes in contains. The present paper tries to illustrate some of these defects and mistakes. It is hoped that a lot of the remarks mentioned in this paper will be of some help to researchers and a reminder to the translator of Herman's article.

Key words: numerical deduction, inference to the best explanation, inference, deduction, criticism of translation.



A Glance at the Scope of the Study of Ethics

Mas’ud Omid*

Today, the scope of the issues on philosophy of ethics has greatly expanded. Sometimes this expansion may cause confusion and ambiguity in understanding ethical questions. Therefore, this paper tries to provide a general picture of the main issues, views and schools in the field of the study of ethics. This picture can provide the ground for a general prospect of the issues in the study of ethics. Hence, attempting to identify this prospect, the present paper divides the subject into five parts. These five parts are: “the general types of research in the field of ethics”, “exemplified ethics”, “the general classifications of ethics”,“preliminary terms”, and “the philosophical views and schools”. It is worth mentioning that the general classifications and their subcategories are discussed mainly with regard to the current trend of the study of ethics.

Key words: study of ethics, types and orientations of research in ethics, views and schools, having an overall prospect, current trends of the study of ethics.



Application of Integrative (Three-Dimensional)
Method in the Studies of Humanities

Najibollah Noori*


Nowadays, due to the limits of the qualitative and quantitative empirical method, researchers recommend the use of integrative method. The present paper, considering the effect of fundamentals on method, suggests the necessity of using revelation, reason, and experience in the studies of humanities as an integrative method which produces comprehensive results. To prove the necessity to use these three sources, evidence has been cited from religious sources. Practically, this method undergoes four general stages: in the first stage, the views of scholars of humanities are investigated and evaluated. In the second stage, related narrative data are gathered. In the third stage, the subject is experimentally tested. In the fourth stage, data elicited from these three sources are compared and analyzed in the light of reason. If inconformities are detected, then the applied experiment tool, the way of interpreting religious texts or scholars' views are reexamined. The final criterion of accuracy is the harmony of data elicited from these three sources..

Key words: quantitative method, integrative method, experimental method, reason, revelation, experiment.



Discourse Analysis and Its Application in
the Source of Islamic Traditions

Reza Shokrani*, Mahdi Moti'**, MarzieFani***


Discourse analysis, a research method used in different branches of humanities, aims at retelling and identifying the hidden meanings of the text. Using this method,the researcher tries to show the relationship between the author, text, and reader. A study of the language reveals that there are several factors influencing the formation of the message of speech. Some of these factors have to do with the deep meaning of the text and some with the surface meaning of the text. This method puts special emphasis on the factors which have to do with the surface meaning of the text. The main components of discourse analysis are: linguistic analysis of the text, investigating the coherence of the text, the context, examining intertextual relations and denotative meaning of the text, and taking a glance at the function of the text. Discourse is the main hidden idea in the text, and discourse analysis is based on concordant observance of all the factors forming the message. The present paper investigates the applied explanation of discourse analysis method and its application in the sources of Islamic traditions.

Key words: discourse, linguistics, methodology, narration, text.



The Role of the Qur’an in the Methodology of Social Sciences

Fatemeh Aminpoor*


Methodology is one of the basic issues of social sciences. The use of these sciences includes exploiting the methods they use. Nowadays, the methods which dominate social science in Iran are western methods, which contradict with Islamic culture which is founded on the ideological and theoretical rudiments of the Qur’an. Therefore, our scientific institutions need a kind of methodology based on such a culture. Western methods are materialistic and are inconsistent with religion, while the Qur’an provides man with excellent view by offering a sort of theistic fundamentals. The Qur’an has many capabilities which western methodology does not. The present paper tries, through on analytical approach, to investigate the role of the Qur’an in introducing religious methodology, and capabilities existing in this epistemological source in the realm of social sciences.

Key words: fundamental methodology, positivism, Sense, Revelation, Reason, Critical Realism.



A Critique of Empiricism in Humanities



The achievement of the objectives of science or scientific cognition indebted to methodology.Using empirical methods, Comte organized human and social studies, and according to empiricists, granted them scientific position. This idea is inspired from the thoughts that appeared after the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, and has dominated human sciences for decades. Empiricism considers behavior and social relations dependant on environmental conditions, and discusses their absolute impact on the formation of man's personality and fate. According to this viewpoint, man is not the noblest of all creatures or centre of gravity of creation. His life is a combination of ordinary actions of nature, without having any relation between moral values, compulsory deeds, limits - generally human activities- and metaphysical forces and premises.

The present paper criticizes and investigates empiricism from two views: The first is the view of those who, through believing in one or several features of human sciences, distinguish human sciences from natural sciences, on the one hand; and use semiotic interpretations to confront with empiricism, on the other hand. The second is the view of those who emphasize on using both methods simultaneously and do not distinguish between them,by making use of Marx Weber's methodological studies.

Key words: methodology, empiricism, interpretationism, explanation, understanding, methodological unity.



A Field Study; the Basic Fundamentals of Methodology
and How to Apply Them

Mohammad Taqhi Iman*, Esfandiar Qhaffari Nasab**


Since the 17th century, it has been assumed that applying the methods of natural sciences and positivist method to studying human society is incorrect. According to Vico, the main feature of society is that its system of concepts is formed collectively. He has proposed an expository method as opposed to natural science methods. Dilthey is another pioneer of expository approach. According to him, things like mind, nature, and culture are essentially different. But positivism tries to have technical control over phenomena. The expository approach seeks to understand the fact as to how actions become mutually meaningful.

Nowadays, qualitative research methods are increasingly used in the various branches of social science. Qualitative research was conducted for the first time by Chicago school in 1920s and 1930s. Qualitative research produces a kind of findings that are not accessible through statistical or other quantitative methods. Qualitative researchers are interested in the meaning.This kind of research relies on expository approach, that is, explains how individuals give meaning to life, experience and social structures. Qualitative research requires field work. As a result, a researcher has a direct contact with people in question who are actually present in the environment in order to observe and record behavior.

Key words: qualitative research, positivism, expository methodology, field study, system of concepts, observation.



Table of Contents

A Field Study; the Basic Fundamentals of Methodology and How to Apply Them / Mohammad Taqhi Iman, Esfandiar Qhaffari Nasab

A Critique of Empiricism in Humanities / Davood 'Abbasi

The Role of the Qur’an in the Methodology of Social Sciences / Fatemeh Aminpoor

Discourse Analysis and Its Application in the Source of Islamic Traditions / Reza Shokrani, Mahdi Moti', MarzieFani

Application of Integrative (Three-Dimensional) Method in the Studies of Humanities / Najibollah Noori

A Glance at the Scope of the Study of Ethics / Mas’ud Omid

A Review of a Translated Text / Mansoor Nasiri



In the Name of Allah

Pazhuhesh Vol.2, No.2

An Academic Semiannual on Research Fall & Winter 2010-11



A Publication by Imam Khomeini Institute for Education and Research

Editor in Chief:: Ahmad Husein Sharifi

Editor:: Morteza Sanei

Coordinator: Jafar Alijanpor

Translation of Abstracts: Language Department of IKI.



Editorial Board:

- Mahmud Rajabi professor IKI

- Dr. Hasan Zarei Matin Associate Professor, Tehran University

- Dr. Abulfazl Sajedi Associate professor IKI

- Dr. Ahmad Husein Sharifi: Associate Assistant Professor IKI

- Dr. Reza Brenjkar: Associate Professor, Tehran University

- Dr. Mohammad Fanai Associate professor IKI

- Dr. Ahmad Vaezi Assistant Professor of Research center of Baqir al-Ulum University



* Assistant Professor of Research Centre of Islamic Sience and Culture. Nasirimansour4@Gmail.com

Received: 2011/1/15 - Accepted: 2011/2/26

* Assistant professor of the department of philosophy, Tabriz University. masud_omid1345@yahoo.com

Received: 2010/12/30 - Accepted: 2011/3/6

* P.hd studen, in Psychology IkI.Noori1351@gmail.com

Received: 2011/1/1 - Accepted: 2011/3/11

* Faculty Member, Isfahan University Shokrani.r@gmail.com

** Faculty Member, Isfahan University mahdimotia@gmail.com

*** A.M Student in Theology, University Isfahan mibents@gmail.com

Received: 2010/12/16 - Accepted: 2011/2/7

* M.A. in Sociology, Bagher al-Olum University Faminpoor@yahoo.com

Received: 2010/11/1 - Accepted: 2011/2/7

* P.hd Student, Tehran University. a.davood@yahoo.com

Received: 2010/12/31 - Accepted: 2011/3/6

* Professor, Shiraz University. Iman@shirazu.az.ir

** Assistant Professor, Shiraz University Ghafari.na@gmail.com

Received: 2010/12/28 - Accepted: 2011/3/19



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